عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
European companies made a lot of efforts to directly interfere in eastern commercial trades. Portuguese finally managed to conduct exclusive commercial trades between Asia and Europe; as a result, they could achieve commercial benefits which were gained by Muslims before. However, Portuguese dominance in commercial trades in East and Persian Gulf declined in the seventeenth century as it was challenged by English and Dutch companies. In fact after religious reform in Europe, distribution of power and disputes inflate all over the Europe. Then after Catholics, Protestant countries such as England and The Netherland focused their attention to commercial relations between Europe and other parts of the world, particularly Eastern countries. As a result these two countries, England and the Netherland, overcame Portuguese companies in commercial trades in East and Persian Gulf in the seventeenth century. Afterwards, Dutch and English trade companies had rivalries in Persian Gulf. In addition, the ways Dutch and English companies emerged and settled in East and Persian Gulf as well as their similar and different commercial activities are the matters which will be discussed in the present paper. The current article has applied a descriptive – analytical approach in analyzing competitions between English and Dutch companies in East India. It is concluded that English companies successfully managed to overcome Dutch companies.