عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Shia scholars and clergymen played a role in cultural, religious and political changes in Afghanistan. They played an awakening role before and after the invasion of Russians to Afghanistan. However their role and position were never analyzed properly, so no research has been done on this subject. Thus the question is: What is the origin of flourishing and dynamism of the Islamic awakening in Afghanistan by Shia scholars and clergymen? Education and prolonged relations between Shia scholars and clergymen with Najaf and Qom alongside the existence of autocracy and colonization in Afghanistan made them the awakeners of this country (hypothesis). On one hand the present paper is trying to present a clear image of the influence of the Hawza of Najaf and Qom, and on the other hand, the relations between Shia scholars and clergymen of Afghanistan with political awakening (goals). The present paper through a historical – analytical study, library sources and field study would reach the answer of the question (methodology).
Religious centers in Najaf played an important role in political awakening in demanding political rights of Shia Muslims, starting political awakening, participation of clergymen in political actions and attempts to unite Shia Muslims politically. Also religious centers of Qom were influential in defending political rights of Shia Muslims, expanding of political and revolutionary Islam, having a pivotal role of Ruhniyat in political behavior, having maximum political involvement of Shia Muslims, and forming political parties and organizations (findings).